b. The Australian Immunisation Handbook (Dept.
Discuss Mary’s motivation for receiving a tetanus boosting vaccine, according to the 2017 Department of Health guidelines.2.
Three wound observations from the physiological basisa.
Each of these three wounds is indicated by observation and gives a reason as to whether it’s a sign or not.b.
Discuss the physiological foundation of the first observation.
Discuss the physiological background of the second observation.
d. Discuss how the third observation is physiologically based.3.
Fever development and its benefitsa.
How did Mary fever form?b.
Discuss two methods fever can be beneficial.4.
Possible sources of contamination, modes of transmissiona.
Name one source of endogenous contamination and discuss how it is transmitted to the new host.b.
Name an exogenous source and discuss the mode for transmission to the new host.5a.
Describe the additional benefits Augmentin provides and the role of its major ingredients.
Answer to Question: HUBS1401 Human Bioscience
Clostridium totani, a bacteria that can infect wounds if they are exposed, is an endospore forming, rod-shaped bacterium. It can also cause tetanus.
Mary suffered from a wound that she opened while working in her garden. This could have exposed her wound both to the soil, and to C. tetani.
Tetanus, which is caused by neurotoxins Tetanospasmin (both from the bacterium) and Tetanolysin (both from the bacterium), can be caused by two toxins. There is however the tetanus booster vaccine which can be given to Mary so that she gets adequate protection (Immunise.health.gov.au, 2017).b.
Mary is 50 years-old and should receive the tetanus vaccine booster, especially if she had not received one in the last 10 years.
Some cases have shown that even a booster before the injury could not prevent tetanus. So, it is best that soon after an exposed wound is treated, it should be followed by a tetanus toxoid booster (Immunise.health.gov.au, 2017).
If Mary sustains an injury, a tetanus booster may increase the amount of circulating antibodies to toxins in her blood. It will allow Mary’s immune system to fight Clostridium Tetani infections.2 a.
A variety of biochemicals are released to control infection and promote homeostasis.b.
The acute inflammatory response is what causes the wound’s edges to be hot and red.
The compounds that cause inflammation are released at the injury site and include histamines as well as prostaglandins (some kinins), and complement system components.
Combining the effects of some cytokinins and these compounds increases blood flow to injury sites, making the edges appear reddish.
For increased blood flow, the capillaries in the vicinity of the cut are dilated with nitric oxide.
Prostaglandins (E1 and E2) increase the vascularpermeability, allowing neutrophils to move from the capillaries into tissue. In addition, they relax the smooth muscle of the blood vessels.
Craft (2015). An increase in temperature at injury site causes cells metbolize faster, so edges appear hot.
c. There is evidence that there is swelling in the area surrounding the injury.
It is also known by the name edema. The fluids that are oozing from blood vessels cause it to occur.
This fluid is a thickening of the tissues. It can also cause pain.
The pain causes a reduction in movement. Patients can heal faster if there is no movement around the injured area (Marieb Hoehn, 2014).
d. Mary has a fever if she notices a purulent and odorous drainage from the wound.
A clear sign of an infection is a discharge of this type. This is why healthcare staff sent a sample from the wound to confirm the diagnosis and test the antibiotic sensitivity.
After an infection, the immune response is to increase the exudate volume and cause swelling and pain.
A prescription can be made to an oral antibiotic for the treatment of infection by a disease (Craft, 2015).3a.
Fever is an important part of immune response.
Fever is defined to be a core temp that is measured rectally, and is greater than or equal to 380C.
Mary had an infection. The endotoxins produced by the bacteria from Mary’s wound caused the release of the cytokines interleukin-1 (interleukin-6), and tumor necrosis factors- (TNF), which are the three pyrogenic chemicals.
These in turn result in the release prostaglandin E2, cortocotrophin, and endothelin I.
The pyrogens can trigger a fever in the anterior hypothalamus’ pre-optic zone.
The body’s temperature rises when it begins to conserve and produce heat (Craft 2015.b.
Fever is beneficial in that it can stop the multiplication process of the pathogenic bacteria.
Fever is good for the body because it depletes three vital minerals, iron, copper, and zinc. This helps to stop bacterial replication and decreases the rate of bacterial pathogens growing.
Phagocytosis happens at a faster rate, and the elimination process of pathogens is much quicker (Marieb Hoehn – 2014).4a.
Transmission via contaminated hands is possible.
When bacteria is introduced to an injured area, such as a cut or wound, it becomes more nutrient rich in moist subcutaneous environments and rapidly turns into a disease that slows down healing.
It may then be necessary to administer antibiotics to the wound to treat it (Demidova Rice-Rice Hamblin, Herman (2012)b.
Healthcare personnel, surfaces or doors contaminated with Staphylococcus ausreus may be exogenous sources of contamination.
Mary’s wound was not infected by soil bacteria.
S. aureus infections tend to be endogenous. However, when they are exogenous, the contamination is often due to poor hand washing practices by healthcare staff (Lee, 2016).5a.
Mary’s wound care report showed that she had contracted an S. aureus-related infection.
Also, the report stated that Amoxycillin is sensitive to the culture.
But, many Staphylococcus strains are known to be resistant beta lactam antibiotics. Augmentin can be used to treat her condition (Bullock Manias (2017)
b. Augmentin contains Clavulenic Acid and Amoxycillin.
Amoxycillin’s mechanism of action is to prevent bacteria from making peptidoglycan cell walls.
Because of the rise in antibiotic resistance, the beta-lactam antibiotics are no longer effective against bacteria.
Bacteria evolved the ability to synthesize beta-lactamase enzyme. This results in the breakdown of beta lactam’s ring. Thus, even though the antibiotic was present, multiplication could continue uninterrupted.
The antibiotic was again effective after the addition of clavulenic Acid to amoxycillin. Clavulenic acid could block activity of beta Lactamase enzyme, and the betalactam could disrupt the formation of peptidoglycan-cell wall.
Augmentin can be used in effective therapy for S. aureus (Bullock Manias (2017)
ReferencesBowler, P. G., Duerden, B. I., Armstrong, D. G. (2001).
Wound Management and Associated Approaches: Wound Microbiology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 14(2), 244 269. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.14.2.244-269.2001.Bullock, S., Manias, E. (2017).
Fundamentals of pharmacology 8th ed.
Frenchs Forest, Australia – Pearson AustraliaCraft, J. . (2015).
Understanding pathophysiology (2nd Australian/New Zealand ed. . Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier.Demidova-Rice, T. N., Hamblin, M. R., Herman, I. M. (2012).
Acute Wound Healing: Pathophysiology of Drug Delivery and Current Methods Part 1: Normal Wounds: Causes, Biology, and Care Approaches.
The advancements in Skin Wound Car.Immunise.health.gov.au.
(2017, August 1) /Aus-Imm-Handbook.pdf. Retrieved from https://immunise.health.gov.au: https://immunise.health.gov.au/internet/immunise/publishing.nsf/Content/7B28E87511E08905CA257D4D001DB1F8/$File/Aus-Imm-Handbook.pdfLee, G. . (2016).
Pearson Australia. Melbourne.Marieb, E., Hoehn, K. (2014). Human Anatomy Physiology, Global Edition.
Pearson Education Limited.