Define how understanding theories on personality and perception can assist a manager in being more effective with their employees.

Description of the proper theory of perception and personality with current literature review.

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Managers are able to apply the theories in practice.

Convincing suggestions and conclusions.

Qualitative presentation includes clarity of expression and professionalism in layout, formatting, grammar, spelling.

Answer to Question: MGT701 Leading And Managing Organisations


Perceptions and personality have a major impact on the relationships between people and their workplaces.

Managers need to be aware about attention that is selective and some distortions that can be attitudinal.

This helps managers to be more effective in managing group dynamics, workplace inequalities, and interpersonal conflicts.

To be able to assist managers in managing their skills and to be able maximize on workplace diversities, coach employees, reduce on workplace stress and understand the fundamentals behind the theory of social identification, perception, and personality they need to have the ability to help them.

The recognition of personality and the ability to recruit for different roles requires many skills and aptitudes.

Main Discussion

Description of the Appropriate Theory On Perception And Personhood, With Current Literature Review

Every person is unique in their ability to perceive and make sense out of the world around them.

Some people believe that human behavior is a way of responding to an objective reality. However reality is more a collective hunch, as Lily Tomlin (Hyde. p 21).

This type of stimuli is also available in our environment. However, each individual’s choices can affect how we use the stimuli.

This is the process of making sense from sensory data.

Perception acts as a filter to help us avoid becoming overwhelmed by all the stimuli.

Information is often organized in relation with similarity and closure.

There are patterns of perception that are based upon life experiences. These schemas also exist.

The information is then arranged to create cause and effect patterns.

All of the above information forms the frames.

This frame manages all stimuli in the surrounding environment.

Because of this, our attention becomes more focused.

Only stimuli are perceived by selective attention (Edwards und Lambert, p13).

Only information that fits in the defined frame of reference is considered selective attention.

One can only perceive information within the frame if they use selective attention.

Stereotyping, self-fulfilling prophesies, and projections are all possible because of the way we organise information.Sankhya Theory Of Perception

This theory states that the stimulus for perception is provided by the existence of a real object.

This is how the awareness of perception can be given an object that’s real and visible.

The right perception object, which is always real and of practical value, is never an illusion.

A direct perception is one that is based on the truth of what is being perceived.

The senses cannot perceive anything that is undetermined. Hershcovis, Barling, p 281.

The senses have access to an immediacy and objectivity in the form of “this is an object”.

This can be taken in certain respects to be a perception of the bare abstract.

The Antahkarana also demonstrates the concreteness and determination of the perception of the nature “I know the item”.

There is a contemplation by the mind on what the senses supply it with. Its order is given along with the certainty through acts of deliberation, synthesis.

It is from here that we get the perception of an object being “this” and not “that”.

However, perception doesn’t stop here.

The Ahamkara, which can be described as an individual ego, arrogates of itself the function that results in the mind’s perception being transformed from impersonal to personal.

The empirical principle that is focused on individuality allows the perception to refer to a particular person.

After understanding the nature of the ego, the intellect can then make a decision and choose the appropriate action.

When the intellect is understood, the will and determination to take action follow.

Sankhya states that Purusha experiences many of the thoughts and volitions related to intellects.

The intellect is the sole source of intelligence that allows us to understand and to make decisions.

Personality Theory

Personality is a combination of unique individual characteristics. It can include interests, values or emotions.

Personality can be created when individual traits interact with the environment.

Inventory of personality can be used to assess it. This includes projective assessments, role-playing, interviews, simulation observations, and tests that are projective.

This helps to identify and also articulate individual traits.

This is called self-reporting inventories.

The results are in the end organized to provide insights into their personality.

The projective test gives you the opportunity to answer in a story or picture.

Because these are projective exercises, one is allowed to interpret and see the material in any way that they choose.

These techniques put people in situations where they can either see or give answers.

This technique is used in interviews related to job opportunities and case competitions.

They are looking for skills in solving problems, competencies at work, and fit within the culture of the organization.

Freud’s Theory Of Personality

Freud states that many factors contribute to a person’s personality.

There are conscious processes, unconscious drives like aggression and food drives, as well as instinctive drives that can lead to aggression and food drives. Parents are also involved in this process (Milam Spitzmueller und Penney p. 63).

The first five years of a child’s development are influenced by their environment and the instincts.

The parental behavior affects the normal or abnormal development of a child.

Most personality and mental disorders that are seen in adulthood are related to the early years of development (Tinwell Nabi Charlton, p 1621).

They seek out pleasure through satisfying the desires of Id.

The location of the pleasure source is determined by where the libido is located.

Therefore, the location and desires of pleasure change with the age of the child.

Feud states that personality is a result of interactions between the key structure of one’s mind, i.e.

ego, superego and the id.

The most primitive form of these structures is the id. It is focused on instant gratification regarding physical desires.

It is unconscious and operates in an uncontrolled manner (Serfass und Sherman, p.711).

One example is when a person walks into a hotel and finds someone who is eating fries next to them, they are more likely to order the same meal.

It doesn’t really care what someone feels about their choices, as long as they are satisfied.

They are most concerned about rules and the morals of society for their super ego instincts.

This is a reference to the moral compass.

This is a consequence of what the child learns about their culture in regards to the right and wrong.

The superego does not allow one to order from the restaurant if the person in front of you has already ordered. (Mitchell, Ambrose. p 1163).

With a strong ID, however, one may be able to override any superego. In this case, one can still order the same dish from the unconsciousness.

This comes with some guilt later.

The ego part is mostly rational when it concerns personality.

Its primitively, however, is very low and it is either partially conscious (Paunonen or Hong, page 810).

Feud explains that it’s the self’. It strikes a balanced between the id or superego.

With the same situation in the restaurant, the ego strikes the right balance between ordering different meals and orders the correct one.

Before making good decisions, you must make sacrifices.

It is more about compromising one situation for another or both.

Feud, therefore, concludes that the three i.e.

Feud suggests that the three, id and superego, are involved in conflicts in most cases. This means that personality and behavior of adult humans are most likely to be healthy. However, neurosis can occur if there are any imbalances in the system.

You may also experience anxiety and depression.

Managers can use theories in the workplace

Managers can benefit from the two main theories regarding perception and personality by applying them to different workplaces.Theory Of Perception

When it comes to making decisions concerning their employees, managers who use perception theory are more in control.

It is possible to make erroneous assumption after having perceptions that might be flawed (Musek. p 1228).

Manage perceptions- If people are constantly placed in uncertain and unfamiliar situations, it can make it difficult for them to adapt at work.

Professionals who are good at business management can help you to clearly communicate the benefits to all of your stakeholders.

Their arguments are usually persuasive enough to get approval for any strategy, even when faced with opposition or confrontation.

Managers who take the time to understand others’ perspectives and attributes and are able give support when necessary, and build upon their justifications.

Handling of attributions-even though perceptions can be flawed, attributions could be incorrect.

Most success is due to luck, luck, or skills.

Most situations are a result one’s thinking about the present.

Managers may offer diversity training in order to make sure employees are being credited appropriately (Wang et. al., p.330).

It helps to eliminate hostile working environments, especially for employees with different cultures.

The training on precise attributions helps to make daily operations run smoothly.

Managers who believe extraordinary performance can be attributed only to luck are best avoided.

They often avoid assigning work to qualified employees as they feel that this is luck.

Others judge people on their personality and ability to explain behavior.

Either success or failure is also attributed.

Their work performance is affected by the attributions they make to themselves.

People who have completed their trainings well are more confident than those who don’t.

The way one sees others will determine whether they react consistently or inconsistently (Mcdonnell Breidt and Buelthoff at p.96).

It is easier to recognize the cultural beliefs and motivations of others and can help them understand their workers and rectify situations that may be unproductive.

Managers will be able to react in the right way if they know the causes of employees’ behaviors.

Avoiding bias. It is important to reduce bias. If there is any bias that can interfere with attribution, it is easier for teamwork to be effective.

Utilizing the many resources, tips and tools available through websites like the cultural navigator site, managers can reduce the rate at which people select their interpretations of events based mainly on their backgrounds, attitudes and experiences.

Perceptions of one trait can have an impact on other traits.

This is known as the “halo effect”.

According to Leiter, p. 2, people are often misunderstood to be intelligent if they appear attractive.

Effective interviewers and managers who have the ability and confidence to interpret others’ perceptions are able to perform reviews, conduct interviews and complete daily management tasks.

Theory Of Personality

Personality and skills are closely tied to aptitudes and skills at work.

An inept manager will not make a great motivator.

It is essential to have a compatible personality in any job.

This has made personality a key aspect of the organization’s search for managers and individuals.

Personality testing is widely used in business. The industry involved in the assessment has also grown dramatically.

This explains why there is over 2500 personality questionnaires (Barclay and Aquino at p 636).

This makes it easy to determine the compatibility of one’s personality with employees and managers regardless of the job.

Managers are protected from any legal disputes that might arise after attest has been completed, especially in relation to the position allocations.

Managers that use formalized testing will be better equipped to quantify the results of their hiring decisions.

Personality types-people fall into one of the four basic personality categories. Objective-focused, action-oriented, and goal-oriented types all fit the bill (Hershcovis. p 501).

These people are often cold due to their attempts to justify the results, but they end up being successful.

Socially-based personalities are more friendly and dynamic. Their strength lies in their ability to motivate and also communicate with others.

Although they may be hesitant about conflict-based decisions and making difficult decisions, people who have a supportive personality are very adaptable and can handle any change.

The detail-oriented people love facts and can perceive things well.

These people are often pessimistic and critical.

Each personality type has their own strengths and flaws.

A manager must take into account the personality of his/her staff in order to assign them certain tasks. This allows him/her to shine on strengths and minimize weaknesses.

This is particularly important for managers.

It has a direct impact on one’s personality.

However, personality is inherent. Any form of inclination or ability a person displays and their emotional intelligence allow them to use these skills to identify individual behaviors and make decisions that are appropriate to the situation. (Carter. Mahler. p 12).

Any manager with a socially conscious personality and good emotional intelligence will do well when it comes time to let go of emotional behavior. This will allow them to focus on ensuring that work flows smoothly and that tasks are completed on time.

This allows them to be less overly communicative and disruptive.

The key to successful staffing: A manager who wants their team to flourish or to fill a vacancy must be able to identify and use personality traits to make their staff shine.

This is as important a consideration as previous trainings.

Even though skills and information may be acquired, personality can never be altered (Aquino-Thau, p.720).

A successful manager is one who has the ability to balance the right skills with the right personality.

Convincing Recommendations & Conclusions For An Organization Audience. (HR, Front Line & Senior Management).

Research has shown that job stressors are well-known. But, there is very little information about the way staff at work react to stressful demands. This can be due to both mild interactions and intense responses to the workplace.

Human beings have a tendency to quickly explain and make people’s behavior seem manageable, predictable, and even orderly.

Not realizing that all of us are susceptible to mistakes mainly in social judgment.

This is often seen in workplaces where leadership teams are prone to judging their staff.

One is often biased when it involves observing the behavior of other people around them.

We are largely influenced by preconceived notions.

One only sees what they expect to be able to see and not what is actually there.

Leaders and individuals, as well as many other people, are most easily influenced by stories that are not true to life.

This has lead to people defending their mistakes when it comes to social thought with a lot a confidence in their judgments. This comes with a lot great cost to those being criticized or present in an organization.

It’s not as if people don’t make mistakes about themselves. Instead of seeing them in positive light, they see themselves with more positive perspectives and are more generous.

However, psychologists call this a good thing as it helps to build self-esteem.

Self organization is adaptable and can help you live with much optimism, efficacy, happiness and success.

It is clear that self-organization has positive effects on leaders at work. People are more pleasant if they are happy and optimistic at work.

All leaders, including HR and front office staff, should learn to understand the personality of people they work with. They also need to develop a better understanding of how work environments affect their ability to serve others.

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