Discuss the risks as well as the benefits of Ibuprofen taking as an analgesic.
Answer to Question: PHAR10010 Communication Skills For Pharmacy
Ibuprofen is an anti-inflammatory medication that acts as an analgesic.
Daily doses of more than 1200mg are not effective in relieving pain. In fact, they can lead to gastrointestinal toxicities as well as cardiovascular risks (Derry.2012).
These drugs are usually used to manage mild to medium pain, fever, or inflammation.
It can also be used to manage mild to moderate pains such as tooth pain, migraine, period pain, or arthritis pain (Nice.org.uk 2017.
Ibuprofen works to reduce the inflammation-producing hormones.
Ibuprofen may be used to treat tendonitis, muscle soreness, and joint pain.
Ibuprofen can be used to treat fever better than Aspirin.
Ibuprofen is not addictive and has fewer side-effects than other NSAIDs.
Normally, ibuprofen taken over-the counter comes in capsules of 200 mg or tablets (Nice.org.uk. 2017).
Children over 12 years of age may take one to two tablets each four to six hours, if necessary.
Ibuprofen can also be given intravenously in some instances (Derry, et al. 2012).
For acute pain, you can take 800 mg.
The maximum daily dose of the drug for analgesia is 400-1200 mg.
Inflammatory conditions can be treated with high doses of 2400mg without pain relief (Derry, et al.2012).
Daily doses exceeding 1200mg do not provide additional pain relief. However, they can cause gastrointestinal toxicities and other cardiovascular risks (Derry.et al.2012).
Prostaglandin is an important mediator of pain and inflammation.
The prostaglandin has an antipyretic effect due to its vasodilatation (hypothalamus) and increased peripheral circulation which results in heat dissipation.
Ibuprofen acts as a non-selective inhibitor for the enzyme cyclooxygenase. This enzyme is responsible in the generation prostaglandins using the arachidonic pathway.
COX is responsible in the conversion of the arachidonic Acid of the body into prostaglandin. Therefore, Ibuprofen inhibits COX and reduces our prostaglandin levels (Rainsford 2016).
Ibuprofen may cause nausea, vomiting or dizziness.
Ibuprofen should never be used by those who are about to have coronary bypass heart grafts.
Consult a doctor before you use Ibuprofen for patients with congestive cardiac failure, severe anaemia or Systemic lupus (SLE), bleeding.
Ibuprofen use should be avoided by seniors.
Over-the counter NSAIDs can cause sleepiness in older adults and can also lead to loss of balance, which may increase the risk for falls (Derry.2012).
The risks of stomach bleeding are increased and the kidneys may be damaged by alcohol, so it is a good idea to not consume alcohol (Rainsford 2016).
Research suggests that excessive ibuprofen use in the first three months of pregnancy can increase the chances of miscarriage. (Nice.org.uk 2017.
Ibuprofen is known to cross react with some drugs like apixaban or anti-rheumatic medicines.
Ibuprofen reacts with many blood thinners including Arixtra (Nice.org.uk), 2017).
Patients on antidepressant medications, such as celexa (Derry et. al.), should not receive it. 2012).
Studies have shown that antidepressants increase the levels cytokines in our bodies, which in turn enhances the level serotonin by increasing the number of proteins needed for the production of the serotonin-receptors.
Llorca, et al. (2008) show that the pain killer can interfere with the production and release of cytokines.
Ibuprofen is also known to interact with beta-blockers and other NSAIDs (Llorca et al.2008).
Ibuprofen has many disadvantages, but it is still a powerful medicine that can be used to treat pain and fever.
Proper dosage can help with pain and inflammations.
Awa K. Satoh H. Satoh S. Hori S. Sawada Y. 2012 Prediction of time?dependent interaction of aspirin with ibuprofen using a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.
Journal of clinical pharmacist and therapeutics 37(4), pp. 469-474.Derry, C.J., Derry, S. and Moore, R.A., 2012. Single dose oral ibuprofen plus paracetamol (acetaminophen) for acute postoperative pain.
Cochrane database for systematic reviews, 6.Llorca, C.S., Serra, M.P.M.
Interactions among ibuprofen, antihypertensive drugs and ibuprofen. Incidence of clinical relevance in dental practices. studies, 18, p.19.Nice.org.uk. (2017).
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Aspirin (and related drugs).