Psychological Disorders & Treatments: Part 1
Heather Case Study
Heather, a University student of 20 years, is afraid to speak with people she does not really know.
She chose to study large lectures for her first and second years. In this way, she could hide behind the stage and not interact with other students.
Heather achieved high marks in all subjects.
Heather was required to participate in small class sizes and work in small groups during her third year.
Heather is convinced that she will do something embarrassing like vomit and that her peers will not be impressed with her.
Heather is considering dropping out of University due to her insomnia.
Please identify the psychological disorder.
Provide a detailed explanation of how you diagnosed this disorder, not just Anxiety.
Based on your diagnosis in TASK 2. (above), select the combination of two therapeutic approaches that you think is most effective for the treatment of the disorder.
If you respond, explain why these two approaches are most effective. Use evidence from the literature and the appropriateness of each technique. Also, show how the two (2) therapeutic methods work together.
The following are some of the therapeutic approachesPsychodynamicpsychotherapy
Cognitive therapy (remote or Beck’s cognitive Therapy)
Acceptanceand Commitment Therapy
Exercise 2 – Social Psychology (Social Influence & Attitude Change & persuasion).
Google images, or similar image search engines e.g.
In your assignment, provide a hyperlink to the image. Be sure to verify that the link works before you submit it.
Discuss how the advertisement is designed to change people’s attitudes and behaviors.
You can use the advertisement as an example to show principles of influence, persuasion or attitude change in your response.
Based on your understanding of attitudes and behavioural change and your readings, how effective do think the advertisement would be in changing people’s attitude and behaviours?Exercise 3: Motivation
The following exercise will test your knowledge of the motivational theories.
Use two of the five perspectives about motivation (psychodynamic. behaviourist. cognitive. humanistic. evolutionary.) and give 2 explanations as to why someone might enrol in a university degree program.
Ryan and Deci provide the following link, which is also available as a PDF. It discusses intrinsic motivation and external motivation.https://selfdeterminationtheory.org/SDT/documents/2000_RyanDeci_SDT.pdf
Ryan and Deci(2000) stated that intrinsic motivation…refers only to doing something because you find it inherently enjoyable or interesting, while extrinsic motivation is the opposite.
A motivation to do something that results in a distinct outcome.
Ryan and Deci’s Self-Determination Theory – (SDT), assuming you are already interested in your chosen field, what can your lecturers suggest to increase your autonomy, competence, and relatedness?
Client compliance is often a challenge for health and other professionals.
When assessing whether a client is likely to follow their treatment advice, it is important for them to understand their motivations.
You can find this exercise here:
Based on your chosen area, please give a short (1-2 sentence) example of a treatment that would require the client to change their behavior (e.g.
You are not following the recommendation of the clinician to attend regular appointments. ). Evaluate why the client/patient/individual may not comply with your recommendation.
Include the following information in your response
Select the theory that best explains why a patient might not adhere to yourclinical.
This theory of motivation may help you make future recommendations regarding how to approach this patient.
Answer to Question: PSY111 Foundations Of Psychology For The Health And Human Services
Heather suffers from Social Phobia.
Social Phobia can also be known as Social Anxiety Disorder.
This disorder causes fear in certain situations.
These situations might be so scary that the person may not want to socialize in those circumstances.
Social phobia stems from the fear that you will be judged, evaluated, embarrassed, or scrutinized in public.
The Diagnostic Statistic Manual of Mental Disorder, Fifth Edition (DSM V), lists the following as the criteria for diagnosing social anxiety disorder (Heimberg (et al.). 2014).
Fear and anxiety seen in social situations are to be assessed by the external world.
These situations may include socializing with strangers, or going to a public function.
Feelings of rejection from the outside world.
Anxiety can be triggered by exposure to social situations.
The patient avoids social situations.
Anxiety and fear seem out of proportion.
Social situations are avoided for more than six month.
Distressed thoughts can lead to impairments in both personal and professional life.
Any substance abuse is responsible for the anxiety or distress.
The fear and distress you feel are not related to any other mental disorder.
Heather, a University student of 20 years, is having trouble speaking in public.
It was also revealed that Heather chose subject areas with large lectures when she was first and second year. She could hide in the back and not talk to any other students.
She has always been afraid of attending any public event at her college.
Heather has symptoms that clearly match DSM V’s criteria for Social Phobia.
The treatment of social phobia can begin by eliminating the fear associated with certain situations that could cause anxiety.
Two therapies can be used for the treatment of socialphobia.
Exposure Therapy, a type Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), is one option. The other is Group Therapy.
CBT helps the patient identify and deal with anxiety.
There are many methods to manage social anxiety.
Exposure therapy is one of the best ways to overcome social anxiety.
Exposure therapy involves a counselor who helps patients to feel more comfortable in public environments.
The counselor instructs the patient in the first stages to create a picture of themselves in a social environment and offers suggestions for how to cope with it.
Once the counselor is satisfied that the patient can deal with public confrontation without fear, they are allowed to be released into the external environment (Heimberg und al. 2014).
Going out for lunch, and possibly attending a party are all examples.
After several public meetings, the patient feels secure in knowing that no one is judging and evaluating him or her.
It is possible to overcome social phobia by taking small steps towards exposure to the external environment.
Group Therapy is another option for treating social phobia.
Multiple people are able to meet with other people and work together towards therapeutic goals in group therapy.
Each group includes five to ten people.
Each group works together.
Participants can discuss their own issues with the group.
There are many options for group therapy. One option is the self help group. Individuals with similar experiences can meet in their own way without the supervision of professionals.
The group therapy exposes socially anxious patients to an external group. This helps them to understand themselves better.
Group Therapy helps people to share their own experiences, and they can learn many things from each others (Caine Wijesinghe and Winter, 2014).
Treatment of any mental disorder requires time.
Treatment is about changing the behavior of an individual.
Social phobia treatment requires a combination of both group and exposure therapy.
At the beginning, exposure therapy is used. Next, group therapy can be used.
These treatments are combined to help the patient overcome their social anxiety.
Refer toCaine, T. M., Wijesinghe, O. B. A., & Winter, D. A. (2014).
Personal Styles in Neurosis – RLE: Group Therapy – Implications For Small Group Psychotherapy And Behaviour Therapy (Vol. 2). Routledge.Craske, M. G., Treanor, M., Conway, C. C., Zbozinek, T., & Vervliet, B. (2014).
Maximizing exposure treatment: An inhibitory approach to learning.
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 58, 10-23.Ehde, D. M., Dillworth, T. M., & Turner, J. A. (2014).
Cognitive-behavioral Therapy for Chronic Pain: Innovations, Efficacy and Directions for Research.
American Psychologist. 69(2): 153.Heimberg, R. G., Hofmann, S. G., Liebowitz, M. R., Schneier, F. R., Smits, J. A., Stein, M. B., … & Craske, M. G. (2014).
DSM. SOCIAL AXIETY Disorder.
Depression and anxiety. 31(6), 472-479.Exercise 2
Task 1 Hyperlinkhttps://fishofgold.net/2014/08/23/on-social-anxiety-disorder/
Above advert shows a person with social phobia.
AADA, a tharapy institution, has a website that allows people suffering from social anxiety to seek treatment.
AADA (Anxiety and depression Association of America), is an international NGO that is entirely dedicated to the prevention and treatment of anxiety, OCD and depression.
AADA’s mission revolves around improving the quality life of people suffering from anxiety disorders.
Mental disorders are still stigmatized in society.
Many people have negative attitudes towards those who are suffering from these disorders. (Tsai&Bagozzi, 2014).
The above statement is a brave step towards addressing these kinds of problems.
Social phobia is common and can be treated by proper therapy.
The advertisement does more than inform the population about the problem. It also offers information about where to seek treatment.
The public can see that mental problems are now being addressed through the advertisement.
This will give the affected individuals courage and enable them to openly seek help and live a normal life.
Social influences occur when an external factor has an influence on the behaviour, opinions or emotions of the majority.
Persuation, a broad term that covers social influences, beliefs, and changes in society is called persuation.
Social influence can take many forms. These include compliance (where people agree with each other but keep their personal decisions private), identification (where someone is influenced by another person who is acknowledged by the society) or internalization (where people accept a behavior, belief, and agree to it in public and private).
Six key principles underlie Cialdini’s principles of influence in social situations.
First, Reciprocity. It means often to return a favor.
Reciprocity is the cornerstone of social change (Dishion (2016)
There can be no social change if there isn’t reciprocity.
To make a society more open and accepting, a two-sided give and take policy is vital. Secondly.
The people who commit anything, any idea, or goal verbally, are more likely be honored for it.
Thirdly, social proof involves the social change made by people who society can look up too (Lambert 2017.
Their efforts should lead to positive changes in the lives of their confederates, which will encourage them to do so.
Fourth, Authority means the acknowledgment by society of the contributions made to improving the society.
Fifth, Liking can be defined as the idea of attraction toward a specific idea that is supposed to bring about social change.
Finally, scarcity is the lack of any factor which results in a higher demand.
This is why society change is essential.
ReferencesDishion, T. J. (2016).
Social influences on the development of executive functions in children and teenagers: Steps towards a socio-neuroscience of predictive adaptive reactions.
Journal of abnormal childhood psychology, 44(1). 57-61.Lambert, R. D. (2017).
Workers, Factories & Social Changes in India.
Princeton University Press.Tsai, H. T., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2014).
Contribution Behaviors in Virtual Communities: Cogntiive and Emotional Influences.
Mis Quarterly, 38(1), 143-163.Yu, L., Yan, Z., Yang, X., Wang, L., Zhao, Y., & Hitchman, G. (2016).
Effect of social changes and birth cohorts on subjective well being in Chinese older adults: Cross-temporal meta-analysis 1990-2010. Social Indicators Research, 126(2), 795-812.Exercise 3
The fact that behavior is affected by the external environment has become a well-known phenomenon.
Requirements are the reflection of an individual’s needs.
The drives are the state or arousal that comes with unfulfilled need like hunger and thirst.
You must feel the need to choose the right course to pursue higher education in a university.
Benach and colleagues state that students should feel the need and desire to learn about a particular subject. 2014).
A lack of motivation or drive in a particular subject can lead to a student’s career being ruined.
Motivation must also be considered from a cognitive perspective.
In order to be motivated to pursue further studies, the expectency theory as well as goal setting theories can be applied.
Individuals should have the drive to accomplish something in their lives. Goal setting and an objective are essential.
In order for a student to decide on a subject of study in the near future, they will need to have both a cognitive and behavioristic perspective (Reeve, 2014.
The self determination theory is a way of using human motivation and their personalities as an imperial method to employ an organism meta theory that focuses upon the inner resources of one’s personality development and self regulation.
Motivation includes energy, direction, persistence and equality. All aspects of activation or intention are covered.
Psychology’s central concern has been motivation.
There are two kinds of motivation.
You can achieve intrinsic motivation by following your inner urges and drives.
Extrinsic motivation on the other side is controlled by the environment.
It is assumed the student has an interest in biology.
The student is motivated and eager to continue higher education in his current field.
The Lectures are based on three factors, which are Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness.
Competence allows for control over outcome and experience mastery.
Lecures must be sufficient to allow students to gain a thorough understanding of the topic.
It is important to have an interaction with others in class. The student should feel involved in the discussions and be able to relate to the exercises.
It is vital to have proper reciprocation in order to gain knowledge on the subject.
Autonomy gives us the ability to act in harmony and as causal agents within our own lives.
Students can reflect on automy through the lectures and use it to help them apply the concepts in their lives.
Health care professionals frequently have to deal with patients from different backgrounds.
The treatment has been resisted by a socially anxious patient, who also skipped the follow up.
For socially phobic people, clinicians must help them to understand their motivations.
A social phobic will always resist public interaction.
In such cases, the therapist may use Maslow’s theory on Motivation that falls under the Humanistic approach of Motivation. The theory of motitiation states that self-esteem causes an individual to want to be known in society and gain respect for their work (Jackson and al. 2014).
Socially phobic individuals will not desire to be recognized.
This is because in order to be accepted by society one must interact.
This can be achieved by stimulating an individual’s intrinsic motivation.
The therapist needs to encourage and motivate the patient to set a goal for their life.
The therapist helps patients to find a path in their lives by giving them direction.
The therapist guides the patient to find ways to improve self-esteem, be happy and take away fear from society.
Social phobia can be treated with the Humanistic Approach.
Refer toBenach, J., Vives, A., Amable, M., Vanroelen, C., Tarafa, G., & Muntaner, C. (2014).
Understanding the emerging social determinant that affects health is precarious employment.
Annual review of the public health, 35. 229-253.Benach, J., Vives, A., Amable, M., Vanroelen, C., Tarafa, G., & Muntaner, C. (2014).
Precarious employment: Understanding a new social determinant to health.
Annual review of the public health, 35. 229-253.Reeve, J. (2014).
Understanding emotion and motivation.
John Wiley & Sons.Kacprzak-Biernacka, E., Skura-Madzia?a, A., Kopa?ski, Z., Brukwicka, I., Lishchynskyy, Y., & Mazurek, M. (2015).
The Concept of motivation, its types and subjects.
Journal of Clinical Healthcare. 14(2014_3). 02-05.Jackson, J. C., Santoro, M. J., Ely, T. M., Boehm, L., Kiehl, A. L., Anderson, L. S., & Ely, E. W. (2014).
Enhancing patient care through the prisms psychology: applying Maslow’s hierarchy for sedation/delirium and early mobility in the ICU.
Journal of critical medicine, 29(3), 438-444.