Question:


For research on the consequences of severe deprivation early in life, it is important to critically assess the methodological strengths or weaknesses of case study (such as those by Skuse) and studies that use comparison groups (such English Adoptee studies).

You can illustrate your answer by using evidence from case studies and studies that have used comparisons groups to examine severe poverty.

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Answer to Question: PSYCH 1001 Psychology

Introduction

The definition of severe deprivation is characterized by persistent, chronic, or combined economic hardship.

Most commonly, an acute economic hardship is defined by living below poverty level. This means that there’s limited supply of crucial resources. Compounded hardship refers to disadvantages such as psychological, material or social.

Permanent economic hardship means that there is an ongoing disadvantage.

Persistent hardships might be caused by trauma in childhood, long-term struggles or economic difficulties that continue throughout a lifetime.

Social work using the ethnographic approach is another option.

It is necessary to address the effects of severe deprivation on future generations by studying the effects such as affectionless and mental disorders, and the effects of such severe deprivation on early childhood.

Undoubtedly, the study on severe deprivation shows that child development is affected by early childhood institutionalization.

Outline

Case studies, which are more effective at investigating complex issues like severe poverty than comparison using group data, are noteworthy.

A case study is typically a data collection approach to a topic of research.

Case studies are typically observational. However, they allow researchers to investigate the subject thoroughly and come up with conclusive findings. Usually, case studies adopt an idiographic or nomothetic approach which means single and multiple participation respectively.However, the use of comparison groups involves the comparative of the outcomes of one group of persons with the other .Mainly, the use of comparison groups is proof of whether an intervention or initiatives was successful between or among the compared groups (NPC Clinks ,n .d. ).Case StudiesNoteworthy, case studies are appraised for their ability to collect detailed data which is richer in content and depth thus providing conclusive and in-depth knowledge on severe deprivation and other case studies (Psud43, 2012).Noteworthy, case studies are the mostly used approach to psychology based research due to their ability to provide detail(Conolly,2011).Through case studies ,in depth information about participating individuals is achievable.In addition, case studies offer convenience in investigating dynamic sets of people in the sense that it is easier to make conclusions in scenarios where following up might be a problem.

Case studies are able to provide step-by step observation and evaluation that is not possible in comparison groups or with any other method of data collection.

Additionally, case studies include a detailed analysis of the subject being studied with different methods for data collection.

Notably, case studies enable participants to collect data through questionnaires, interviews, or other methods. This gives researchers and participants a better understanding of how the case study unfolded and provides a basis for future research.

Both empirical and other information can be included in case studies (Faculty of Business and Commerce).

Case studies are useful for rare conditions such as long latency times. Researchers can take their time to observe the subject. Each step is documented, which makes it easier to make the case study’s findings. Latency periods can be influenced by the time difference between exposure or infection and manifestation thus making case studies more efficient as contrasted with comparison groups(Lamorte,2016).Further case studies has been considered effective in addressing challenging assumptions.

Due to the unique nature of case studies, it is much easier to address difficult concepts and theories than other methods of psychological research. Case study also requires time so that case study can be used to investigate severe deprivation.

Case studies are great for stimulating new research and in doing so, can help to advance the original study. In the sense that through case studies valuable information can be deduced in the case of completed case studies prompting advanced research into the field as compared to the use of comparison groups (Universal class, 2017).Also, through case studies there’s flexibility in the sense that case studies can begin at any stage during the research process hence making it easier and convenient to use unlike other approaches to investigating severe deprivation and other research topics(Murphy,2014).Through case studies ,it is easier to address specific issues .Also due to the continual nature of case studies it is easier to advance research on already existing case studies.

Research into psychology and other scientific disciplines is made easier by case studies.

Case studies make it easier to challenge accepted ideas and theories.

Case studies such as the John/John Case study have shown that gender identity and sexual identity can be disproved by conclusive evidence.

The case studies are a way to uncover simpler truths. Notably, case studies are authoritative approaches in the field of psychology .For instance ,Littles Hans and the Rat Man case studies are considered authoritatively insightful in their respective findings thus making it ideal to use case studies(Mcleod,2008).Moreover, through case studies phenomenal insights can be achieved which is unavailable in other approaches to severe deprivation.Notably,perception and motion disparities and in-depth understanding of colors in the Sidney Bradford case study is an authoritative case on the ability of new insights to be achieved through case studies(Universal class,2017).Case Studies

Although case studies have proven to be effective in investigating severe deprivation, it is important to consider other approaches. Usually, case studies, data collection is prone to bias(Lamorte,2016).In a way ,the researcher s interpretation of the data collected depends on personal perceptions, attitudes which could be biased against the case study thereby leading to not so objective results.

Some also argue that case studies are able to eliminate absolute risk.

In other words, absolute risk is a calculation of incidence that cannot be done using case studies.

Hawthorne effects can lead to inconclusive results through case studies.

The Hawthorne effects basically mean that behavioral changes can be observed in individuals while they are under observation (Universal classes, 2017).

A case study’s flexibility to employ different data collection methods makes it possible to obtain more information that can be used to make conclusive conclusions.

It is also time-consuming to conduct case studies because researchers must observe the objects for long periods of time to get detailed and conclusive information. The strength of case studies lies in the ability to document detail which is no doubt time consuming(Hodell,2016).Unlike other approaches to research, case studies are considered high in content thus making it easier to understand all the aspects of the case study.

The understanding of concepts is usually improved by more information. It is therefore important to collect as much data as possible. Case studies offer a way to get detail and understanding.

A case study’s ability to rely on the human memory and interpret them can open the door for mistakes and misinterpretations.

Case studies are dependent on the interpretations, perceptions, and opinions of the researcher. This raises the question about objectivity or bias.

Case studies are susceptible to misinterpretation and errors due to the influence of the researchers’ personal opinions, perceptions, and interpretations. Further, case studies tend to focus on single research elements thus raising questions about generalizability (Reis ,2009).Further, Case studies are considered less scientific in the sense that some persons argue that its lacks science based vigour (Crowe et.al.,2011).Typically, scientific research has its own way of going about it to which case studies fall short of according to some observation thus the assertion that case studies lack scientific vigour.

Comparison Groups

Comparative studies are evaluated for the ability to give generalized findings that is superior to case studies.

Contrary to case studies, comparison groups offer fewer benefits than case studies. However, case studies are a better investigative strategy.

Comparative groups have fewer advantages than case studies. This makes them a better investigative approach.

Control groups, also known as comparisons groups, can be very effective at testing single variables at the same time. This is crucial for any scientific-related research like severe deprivation. However, it is possible for comparison groups to produce inconclusive results if different criteria are used for assessment.

Furthermore, the effectiveness of comparison groups is dependent on whether participants are similar to those to which the research will be applied.

The criteria used to choose participants for comparison groups must be defined.

(Pithon (2013)). It is difficult, if certainly impossible, to carry out a follow-up unlike case studies which allow for follow-up sessions.

Loss of patients during follow ups is a serious setback to the research.

Conclusion

Undoubtedly, psychology is one of the most important disciplines.

Severe poverty is an example of economic hardship that has been studied through comparison groups and case studies.

It is important to understand the causes of severe poverty in adulthood.

Case studies are more detailed than other research methods.

Refer to

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Pithon M. M. (2013).Importance Control Group in Scientific Research. Scielo.Com. Retrieved from https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-94512013000600003Psud43.

(2012). Advantages, and Disadvantages for Case studies. Word Press .Retrieved from https://psud43.wordpress.com/2012/02/19/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-case-studies/

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