1) Identify Career Counselling Theories. These Theories can be helpful in explaining John’s Situation.

2) As an Attending Counsellor, describe your Professional and Ethical Responsibilities throughout the Sessions.

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3) Identify and explain the purpose of objective assessment and how it has contributed towards your assessment of the situation.

4) The Considerations for Objective Testing.

Before, during and afterwards the Counselling Session.

It is necessary to suggest the Specific Test Instrument for John to be assessed and to explain how it affects the reliability, validity, and efficacy of the Counselling Sessions.

Answer to Question: Responsibility Of A Career Counsellor


Career counselling assists people in choosing the best career path.

As the career counsellor, the individual’s personality and educational background are all considered, they will also be able to suggest career options.

The theory of John L. Holland has been extensively discussed, as well as the theory by Donald E. Super.

John’s personality is highlighted, along with the stages of development as shown in the case.

Personal Counselling

Counsellor: Hi John.


Counsellor – How are you doing these last days?John: I am good

Counsellor – Do you have anything to share?

John: I was happy in my life and did well until I had to deal with issues with my spouse.

I have been having difficulties at work and am not satisfied with my job.

Additionally, my son has been receiving psychological treatment and assessments. This also makes me feel disturbed.

Counsellor: Are your problems affecting both your personal and professional lives?

John: Yes, and I need to be guided.

1.Career Counselling Strategies That Work in John’s Case

John was having problems at work.

He also had issues with his wife.

John felt he was not at the right job.

He saw the counsellor. Mr. Tan is a career counselling supervisor.

Holland’s Theory of Career Choice: This is an important theory to make the right career and career development choices.

According to this theory, most people have one or more of the six personality types: creative, social, analytical, artistic, traditional, and enterprising.

These are known as Holland codes.

People with the same personality type create a healthy workplace (Walsh & Osipow (2014)).

A person should match their personality and work environment so that they can be satisfied at work.

Below is an overview of Holland’s theory.

Holland noted that most people in the society belong to one of the six personalities Holland has mentioned.

These six personality types can be described as realistic, socially acceptable, conventional, enterprising, entrepreneurial, artistic and legitimate.

These are also known as the Holland codes.

Working together with people who have the same personality will create a healthy and positive environment. People work in similar ways and work in a similar way.

Work is defined as a purpose for which it is done.

This could be for money or self satisfaction (Foutch, et al. 2014).

John will find job satisfaction if he is surrounded by people who reflect his personality.

Super’s career growth theory: This theory recognizes that people change as they grow older.

John was 44 years-old when he entered the establishment stage (Walsh (2014)).

Super has five career development and personal life stages.

Growth- The age at which a person can reach adulthood is between 0-14.

This stage helps to develop self-concept as well as the need for the world.

Exploration- This stage is for people between 15 and 24 years old.

This stage allows participants to explore the world and find new things.

Establishment – Participants are aged between 25 to 44 years.

This stage is crucial for the development and maintenance of entry level skills.

This phase is vital for career growth.

Maintenance- In this phase, there is a continuous adjustment process to improve the current position.

This phase sees participants ranging in age from 45 to 64. Decline-.

The participants in this phase are older than 65.

The phase sees a dramatic reduction in output, and people prepare to retire (Sampson. 2014).

This theory is applicable to John as he was 44 when he entered the exploration phase. He was also supposed to be most productive in this phase.

2. Professional and ethical responsibility

Career counselling is a profession that requires responsibility. The counsellors should ensure that their professional responsibilities are met and adhere to the code of ethics and practices.


The counsellor must ensure that clients are kept private.

The counsellor must keep the confidential information of their clients.

John’s counsellor has to keep John confidential about his issues (Herlihy & Corey 2014.

John must be aware of all the therapies and treatments he is going through.

An ethical consideration for counsellors is to be kind and courteous towards their clients.

John was in a traumatise state and thus needed to receive care.

The following ethical considerations must be considered:

Beneficence is the responsibility of a career counselor to ensure and promote the client’s well-being.

Counsellors must make sure that the counselling session is positive for the client.

This is a crucial responsibility of counsellors, and it should be maintained.

Non-malfeasance. A counsellor should not engage in non-maleficent behavior with a client.

This is an important ethical issue to follow as a career counsellor.

Autonomy – This is an important ethical responsibility that allows the client to think for himself and make decisions independently without the assistance of a career counsellor.

Justice: Counsellors are responsible for ensuring equal treatment of all their clients regardless of their age, race, or ethnicity.

Counselors should discourage any form of discrimination.

Responsibilities for Professionals:

Counsellors have to be able understand the client and have a conversation.

Communication between the counsellors and clients must be accurate. The counsellor should also make the client feel at ease and allow him to share his concerns and problems.

John was experiencing difficulties at work as well as conflicts with his partner.

Additionally, his son had personality disorder.

He felt that he chose the wrong career and was therefore mentally disturbed.

John’s difficulties are best understood and guided by the counsellor.

To be able to counsel clients in specialized areas, the counsellor must first have the appropriate knowledge and training.

It is also the responsibility of the counselor to ensure that he has the necessary qualifications to work as a career advisor.

This is essential, as many people are dependent upon the counsellors’ guidance and career choices.

Counsellors are responsible for ensuring that ethical considerations are met and that professionals fulfill their professional responsibilities.

3.Purpose of Objective Evaluation and Its Importance When Analyzing the Situation

An objective assessment is an assessment process that gives a single correct answer for a question.

Leong, 2014. Objective assessment is a valuable assessment tool for assessing personality.

The objective assessment helps you to understand your personality.

In the case of John, the objective assessment helps to understand and analyze John’s personality.

Psychological tests can measure a person’s mental functioning.

An objective assessment is helpful and, if used by a counsellor would be useful in understanding John’s issues and analysing his situation.

DiSC is a tool for counselling assessment.

This is an important tool that John could use for career counselling.

John’s personality might be assessed by using the science behind DiSC. He could then choose the most suitable career path.

This assessment tool can help John resolve his internal conflicts and make him more productive.

DiSC offers simplicity and cost-effectiveness as its main benefit.

This assessment tool is unique in that it allows you to match job opportunities according to your personality.

The tool’s assessment results are valid and reliable.

John is able to use this tool.

MBTI is an important career assessment tool.

This tool is effective and appropriate for Assessment of John’s personality.

This tool can help you avoid conflicts, resolve them, discover the areas that interest you, and recommend career options.

John’s case study shows that MBTI is the best assessment tool for career counselling.

MBTI offers three main benefits: avoiding and resolving conflicts, identification of strengths, and ensuring strengths are highlighted.

This assessment tool aids in career development.

MBTI also helps with communication strategies.

MBTI is also helpful in the development of thinking skills.

This tool is also useful in developing emotional intelligence.

John was struggling with various issues and was dissatisfied by his current job. This made it crucial to concentrate on his strengths in suggesting a career.

MBTI is a tool that helps you understand your personality.

John can use MBTI and DiSC assessments. The results are reliable.

MBTI however is best for John’s career guidance.

Both of these tools can be used to help you.

Counsellors may be able to rely on both the results and the information from these tools.

MBTI may be recommended for assessment of John’s personality.

MBTI is a positive tool for counselling because John can rely upon the results.

MBTI gives validity to the session and positively affects the counselling session.

John could use the MBTI tool to assess himself and the counselor could help him understand his interests so that he can make the right career choice.

John is justified in using the MBTI assessment to help him understand his issues.

This tool is useful in understanding John’s personality and helping him to understand his issues.

MBTI can help John improve his emotional intelligence as well identify his interest area.

John is advised to use MBTI for assessment.

4. Objective Testing

The objective test is important for career counselling and personality assessment.

The complex process of objective test taking involves many steps that must be followed by the counsellor before and during the test.

Before Testing

Standardised educational assessment procedures must be followed by counsellors to ensure successful testing.

Below are the required procedures:

Security and Integrity of The Assessment

Counsellors must maintain the integrity and validity of the test, as well as test results.

The counsellor should ensure that the test materials are used only for object testing and are not made available to anyone else.

Preparation of Clients for Testing

Before the test can take place, the clients involved in career counselling have to be prepared.

Client preparation for the objective exam is the responsibility of the test administrator.

The counsellor should give clear instructions to the client in order to provide the best preparation.

Practice while you are taking the test

While the test goes on, it is important that everyone involved in the assessment agree to the results.

Also, it is necessary to place a “do not disturb” tag while the assessment takes place so that no one is disturbed.

The instructions should be understood by all who are taking the tests.

To prevent malpractices, the administrator must move about the test room and watch all examinees.

John was 44 years-old and was now in the establishment stage of his career.

The career counselor should guide John so that he may find a suitable career and be able to support his family the way he was earlier.

After Test

After the test ends, the results are analyzed and the assessment result for the client is presented.

After the assessment is complete, the results will be presented.

The authenticity of the assessment results should not be compromised.

John can use MBTI or DiSC as an assessment tool. The results obtained are reliable.

MBTI however is best for John’s career guidance.

Both of these tools can be used to help you.

Counselors could rely on both the tools’ results.

MBTI may be recommended for assessment of John’s personality.

MBTI is a positive tool for counselling because John can rely upon the results.

MBTI can positively impact the counselling session, and it gives validity to the session.


Career counseling is a vital activity. A proper guidance must be given to ensure that each person chooses the most suitable career.

John’s counselling session was very successful. The counsellor helped to solve many of John’s problems.

John is strongly advised to use the MBTI Assessment Tool.

John was guided well to find the right career for him.

I, as a counsellor, was able motivate John to live a better and more fulfilling life.

Refer toFoutch, H., McHugh, E. R., Bertoch, S. C., & Reardon, R. C. (2014).

Create and use a database on Holland’s theory and practical tools.

Journal of Career Assessment. 22(1), 188–202.Herlihy, B., & Corey, G. (2014).

ACA ethical standard casebook.

John Wiley & Sons.Leong, F. (2014).

Career development and vocational behavior of racial-ethnic minorities. RoutledgePatton, W., & McMahon, M. (2014).

Career development: Systems theory: Connecting theory & practice (Vol. 2). Springer.Sampson, J. P., Hou, P. C., Kronholz, J. F., Dozier, V. C., McClain, M. C., Buzzetta, M., … & Reardon, R. C. (2014).

2013 Content analysis of career development theory, practice, and research.

The Career Development Quarterly. 62(4). 290-326.Walsh, W. B., & Osipow, S. H. (2014).

Career counseling: Recent topics in vocational psychology. Routledge.Walsh, W. B. (2014).

Counselling psychology and optimal human function. Routledge.Zucker, S., Galindo, M., Grainger, E., & Severance, N. (2004).

Standardized assessments are administered according to standard practices

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